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Radon and Lead Inspections
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Radon and Lead Inspections
Environmnet Safe Products
Member National Pest control Association
Spiders can become a nuisance in a home or business due to their webs cropping up in various places. The other more serious problem are the secretions some types leave behind, which is a white colored substance and is extremely difficult to remove.
Black widow :
The widow spiders, genus Latrodectus, are found worldwide in the warmer regions of most continents. The taxonomy of these spiders is a challenge to scientists and has resulted in claims of few (six) to many (twenty-eight) distinct species. In the United States, there are probably five species. They are the southern black widow, L. mactans; northern black widow, L. variolus; western black widow, L. hesperus; brown widow, L. geometricus; and the red widow, L. bishopi. The southern black widow, L. mactans, is found in Pennsylvania. It is probable that the northern black widow, L. variolus, is also present. Occasionally, the brown and the red widow spiders are introduced on potted plants from southern Florida.
Female is one-half inch long; shiny black, with hourglass-shaped red mark on underside of abdomen. Can be found almost anywhere, indoors or out; prefer to build their nests close to the ground. They eat insects trapped in webs made by females. Contrary to popular belief, female is usually unsuccessful in any attempt to eat the male after mating; 300 to 400 eggs are laid in silken cocoon, hatch in about 10 days. Black widows are not aggressive, and will not bite unless provoked. However, they are poisonous. If bitten, seek medical attention; bites are rarely fatal.
The bite of female black widows is, at first, relatively painless. Pain will be felt about one to two hours later, and occasionally the patient may experience a tingling along the nerve routes or down the spine. There is almost no swelling at the site of the bite. However, the site will typically exhibit two red fang marks and may be surrounded by a rash or erythema.
Black widow venom is principally neurotoxic. Generalized body symptoms, which develop within one to three hours, may include any of the following: nausea, chills, slight fever, rise in blood pressure, retention of urine, burning sensation of the skin, fatigue, motor disturbances, breathing difficulty, constipation, and muscle aches, particularly in the abdomen. These symptoms usually disappear after four days. Death does not normally occur, except in the elderly or very young.
Treatment typically includes the use of calcium gluconate (to reduce muscle cramps), Latrodectus anti venom, and diphenhydramine hypochloride (Benadryl®) to counteract allergic reactions to the anti venom. Additional treatments include antispasmatic medications and analgesics.
False Black Widow:
Steatoda grossa, one of at least eight Steatoda species occurring in the United States, is found along the coastal
states of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific regions. In the
southern and western states, it is a common spider in
homes and other structures, where it makes an irregular web (a trait shared by most comb-footed spiders)
and is reported to capture and prey upon other spiders, including the true black widow spiders. Female
Steatoda spiders have been reported to live for up to
six years (males live for a year to a year and a half),
producing numerous offspring
Grass spiders are very common in Pennsylvania and can be recognized by the large, somewhat concave, mostly horizontal, sheet-like web with a funnel or tunnel located off to one side. The webs are found on grass, weeds, and ground covers such as ivy, pachysandra, or periwinkle, and in numerous exterior places such as fence rows, bushes, and brush piles. Homeowners frequently see these fast-moving spiders indoors in the autumn as the spiders seek protection from falling temperatures.
Barn Funnel Weaver:
This funnel weaver is not as common as the previous species. It is found, however, throughout most of the United States, most notably in sheds and barns, around and in the crevices of doors, as well as in the cracks of rock faces and under rocks and boards. The female barn funnel weaver is from 7.5 to 11.5 millimeters in length and the males range from 6 to 9
millimeters in length. The cephalothorax is red-brown with a covering of pale-yellow hairs and two pale gray longitudinal lines. The abdomen ranges from a pinkish to a pale flesh color with a pattern of gray to black patches. The legs are spiny with very pale gray annulations at the distal end of the femurs. The webs are similar to those made by the grass spiders, but they are typically smaller in diameter with the retreat within the web sheet rather than off to one side.
These are some of the largest and showiest of the spiders commonly encountered in North East. They are seen in gardens, tall weeds, and sunny areas with bushes and other supporting structures on which they build their large orb webs. Yellow garden spiders are found throughout most of the United States.
Yellow garden spider females range in length from 19 to 28 millimeters. The carapace is covered with silver hairs, and the eight eyes are procured with the lateral four eyes nearly joined and seated upon two projections or humps on either side of the front of the carapace. The second, third, and fourth pair of legs are black with the femora yellow to red. The front legs are frequently entirely black. The abdomen is an elongated oval that is pointed to the rear, notched in front, patterned yellow and black, and has two anterior humps or shoulders.
Trachelas tranquillus ranges from New England and adjacent Canada, south to Georgia and Alabama, and west to Kansas and Minnesota. They are found outdoors walking on foliage; under leaf litter, stones, and boards; and on buildings under the windowsills and siding. They construct silken retreats, within which they hide during the day. Most occurrences of T. tranquillus in homes coincide with falling temperatures in autumn. They do not, as a rule, establish reproducing
colonies in homes.
The females are 7 to 10 millimeters in length; the males are 5 to 6 millimeters. The chelicerae and carapace are thick, hard, reddish-brown, and covered with what appear to be tiny punctures. The abdomen is pale yellow to light gray, with a slightly darker dorsal stripe. The front pair of legs is darker and thicker; the other three pairs become increasingly lighter and thinner toward the last pair.
(Hogna [previously known as Lycosa] species)
There are thirteen genera of wolf spiders in the United States. The genus Hogna contains numerous species and includes some of the biggest wolf spiders in our area. Two notable species, H. carolinensis and H. aspersa, are among the largest and most commonly encountered in Tri-State homes.
Hogna carolinensis females are 22 to 35 millimeters in length, and the males are 18 to 20 millimeters. The carapace is a dark brown with scattered gray hairs that are typically not arranged in any discernible pattern. The abdomen is similarly colored, with a somewhat darker dorsal stripe. The legs are a solid color.
Wolf spiders will bite if handled or if trapped next to the skin. However, their venoms are not very harmful to humans, which is fortunate since the Hogna species are very large spiders whose bites could do serious damage if their venoms were more potent. Typical reactions include initial pain and redness, which subsides with time. No serious medical consequences of these bites have been noted.
(Dysdera crocata) Dysdera crocata is a hunting spider found from New England to Georgia and west to California. It is also a commonly encountered spider in England, northern Europe, and Australia. The woodlouse hunter preys on pill bugs or sow bugs (order Isopoda) and derives its common name from the British common name for these crustaceans. D. crocata is known to feed on other arthropods as well. This is the only species of the family Dysderidae known to occur in the Tri-State area.
(Loxosceles reclusa and other Loxosceles species) Eleven species of Loxosceles are indigenous to the continental United States, four of which are known to be harmful to humans. Brown recluse spiders are established in 15 states: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas. In addition, isolated occurrences have been reported in Arizona, California, the District of Columbia, Florida, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Wyoming. Brown recluse spiders are rarely encountered in Pennsylvania, but they may be transported in boxes and similar items from a locale where the spiders normally occur.
The bite of the brown recluse spider is often not immediately painful, although a slight stinging sensation may be felt. This spider’s venom includes a neurotoxic component, but the principal concern is its necrotic or cytotoxic properties, which cause it to destroy the tissue where it is injected. About seven hours after a bite, a small blister-like sore appears that will grow in size. There may be a generalized or systemic body reaction in sensitive individuals. Symptoms include chills, fever, bloody urine, fatigue, jaundice, pain in the joints, nausea, rash, and in extremely rare cases, convulsions and death. The amount of damage depends on the amount of venom injected. The damaged area may be the size of a dime or as large as 20 centimeters in diameter. Affected tissue becomes gangrenous, turns black, and eventually sloughs off, leaving a depression in the skin. Healing is slow and scar tissue results from the wound. Healing may take six to eight weeks or require up to a year if the wound is large.
Common House Spider:
(Achaearanea tepidariorum) Achaearanea tepidariorum is a cosmopolitan spider that is widely distributed throughout most of the world. It is extremely common in barns and houses, where it constructs webs in the corners of walls, floor joists, and windows. The common house spider may also be found outside under objects such as rocks and boards,
as well as beneath bridges and similar structures. In homes, it is most often encountered in damp areas such as basements and crawl spaces. Because this spider frequently abandons its web to build a new one nearby, it can produce many webs in a short period of time. This behavior causes homeowners much grief.